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The population policy is directed toward development of the population as human resources in order that the national development can be effective and valuable, while the quality of life is gradually improving. Meanwhile, control of population growth is carried out through efforts to lower the birth and mortality rate, especially that of infants and children. These efforts in particular have been implemented through family planning programs which also have the purpose of improving the welfare of mother and child and at the same time create a small, happy, and prosperous family.

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The crude birth rate is targeted to be reduced from 24.5 per 1000 population in 1993 to 22.6 per 1000 people in 1998. At this rate, the total population is estimated to increase from 189.1 million people in 1993 to 204.4 million people in 1998. Until February 1997, the total population was approximately 200 million. In the meantime, the fertility rate also declined from 4.6 per 1,000 women of childbearing age in 1980 to 3.3 in 1990.The total fertility rate is expected to drop from 2.87 in 1993 into 2.60 per woman in 1998.

Several factors including a rising living standard, higher educational level and improved health services, contributed to the birth rate decline. But the greatest proportion is attributable to the increasing number of people participating in family planning, especially the new eligible couples. Moreover, contraception has become more widespread and effective, making it easier to plan families; and sterilization of men and women has also become more common.

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Life expectancy for 1988 was 63 years, and for 1997 was estimated at 64 years. In 1998 the life expectancy is estimated to increase to 64.6 years.

The crude death rate in 1988 was 7.9 per 1,000 people against 11.7 per 1,000 in 1983. Furthermore, the crude death rate had decreased about 45.1% for the period of 1971-1990, and is expected to decrease from 7.9 in 1993 to 75. per 1,000 people in 1998. Meanwhile the infant mortality rate declined from 90.3 per 1,000 live birth in 1983 to 58.0 in 1988 and is expected to decrease to 50 per 1,000 live birth in 1998. Causes for the decline in the mortality rate include better nutrition, a rising standard of living, advances in medical science, growth of medical facilities, improved health measures, better working conditions, education in personal hygiene, and small nuclear families.


Indonesian nationality is governed by Act No. 62 of 1958. It defines an Indonesian national as a person who, since the beginning of independence on August 17, 1945, qualifies for citizenship under the existing laws.

Further, a person whose mother is an Indonesian national, but whose father's nationality is unknown or whose father is stateless, shall qualify for Indonesian citizenship. Also, a person who was born in Indonesia from unknown parents, or an orphan whose parents are unknown, or a person born in Indonesia who does not inherit any nationality from his/her parents, shall qualify for Indonesian citizenship.

A five year old child, who is adopted by foster parents of Indonesian nationality, shall qualify for Indonesian nationality if the foster parents apply to a court to legitimize the adoption within one year and request is granted.

A child born from a legitimate marriage of an Indonesian mother and an alien father shall, in the event a divorce is granted by the court, qualify for Indonesian nationality if he/she so decides.

A child born from a legitimate or illegitimate marriage between an alien father and an Indonesian mother is entitled to become an Indonesian national if he/she applies to the Minister of Justice, having abandoned his/her alien nationality according to the law of the foreign country or in accordance with an agreement concluded between Indonesia and a foreign country. In such case a child shall submit the application within a year after reaching the age of 18.

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To obtain the Indonesian nationality, aliens must fulfill the following conditions:

  • Have reached the age of 21 or over;

  • Were born in Indonesia or have lived in Indonesia continuously for 5 years, or interruptedly for 10 years;

  • Have a fair command of the Indonesian language and knowledge of Indonesian history, and have never been convicted by a court for a breach of law or for any act against Indonesia;

  • Have the consent of the wife/husband;

  • Are mentally and physically healthy;

  • Pay a fee of not less than Rp500 and not more than Rp10,000, which shall be decided by the court, taking into consideration the applicant's income;

  • Have permanent employment;

  • Have no other nationality or have abandoned his/her nationality which is in conformity with an agreement on dual nationality reached between Indonesia and the foreign country.

An alien married woman is not entitled to apply for Indonesian citizenship. However, the Indonesian nationality may be granted to aliens who have proved meritorious and have served the interest of Indonesia. Such nationality shall be granted with the approval of the House of Representatives.

An alien wife of an Indonesian national is entitled to Indonesian citizenship if she so wishes and makes a statement to that effect within a year of the marriage. This does not apply if the husband has abandoned his Indonesian nationality.

An Indonesian woman married to an alien husband shall lose her Indonesian nationality if she makes a statement to this effect within a year of her marriage.

Indonesian nationality obtained by a husband shall automatically apply to his wife except where she, after acquiring the Indonesian nationality, does not abandon her alien nationality.

If a person loses his/her Indonesian nationality, his wife/her husband also loses it, except where both of them are stateless.

A person who has lost his/her Indonesian nationality by marriage can regain it if the marriage is broken off and the person applies for it. Such an application shall include a statement of the divorce and be submitted to a court or an Indonesian diplomatic mission abroad.

A child under the age of 18 who is not married and retains his/her kinship with the father who has not yet acquired the Indonesian nationality, qualifies for Indonesian nationality if he/she lives permanently in Indonesia.

If a widow or widower obtains Indonesian nationality, her/his child shall be entitled to the same provided that the latter is under 18 years of age and not married. This also applies to children under 18 and not married, born to parents who have lost their Indonesian nationality.

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Information provided by the Directorate of Foreign Information Services, Department of Information, Republic of Indonesia.

242,968,342 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Age structure:
0-14 years: 28.1% (male 34,337,341/female 33,162,207)
15-64 years: 66% (male 79,549,569/female 78,918,321)
65 years and over: 6% (male 6,335,208/female 7,968,876) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 27.9 years
male: 27.4 years
female: 28.4 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.097% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Birth rate:
18.45 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Death rate:
6.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Net migration rate:
-1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
urban population: 52% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 28.94 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 74
male: 33.76 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.05 years
country comparison to the world: 136
male: 68.53 years
female: 73.69 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.28 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
270,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
8,700 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups:
Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)
Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 94%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2008)
Education expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2007)
country comparison to the world: 134 supports I.C.E.Y. - H.O.P.E. (non-profit org)
(International Cooperation of Environmental Youth - Helping Our Polluted Earth) Any advertisement you view helps save the environment!  Thanks!


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