Politics in Indonesia
People's Representative (wiki)
long form: Republic
short form: Indonesia
East Indies, Dutch East Indies
10 S, 106 49 E
(12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard
is divided into three time zones
30 provinces (provinsi-provinsi,
singular - provinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah
istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1
special capital city district** (daerah khusus
ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo,
Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java),
Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat,
Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan
Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau,
Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat,
Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Papua Barat, Riau,
Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah,
Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat,
Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*
the implementation of decentralization beginning
on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities
have become the key administrative units
responsible for providing most government services
17 August 1945
(declared); 27 December 1949 (by the Netherlands);
note - in August 2005 the Netherlands announced
that it had recognized de facto Indonesian
independence on 17 August 1945
Day, 17 August (1945)
abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and
Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July
1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002
Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures
and election codes; has not accepted compulsory
17 years of
age; universal and married persons regardless of
chief of state:
Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004);
Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009);
note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government
Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004);
Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)
appointed by the president
and vice president elected for five-year terms
(eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the
citizenry; election last held on 8 July 2009 (next
to be held in 2014)
Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of
vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI
Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%
Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan
Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of
members of the DPR and DPD and has role in
inaugurating and impeaching the president and in
amending the constitution but does not formulate
national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan
Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members
elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and
passes legislation at the national level; House of
Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah
or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes
providing legislative input to DPR on issues
affecting regions (132 members, four from each of
Indonesia's 30 provinces, two special regions, and
one special capital city district)
held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P
14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%,
GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by
party - PD 148, GOLKAR 107, PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN
46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17
other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote
so did not obtain any seats; because of election
rules, the number of seats won does not always
follow the percentage of votes received by parties
or Mahkamah Agung is the final court of appeal but
does not have the power of judicial review
(justices are appointed by the president from a
list of candidates selected by the legislature);
in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed
administrative and financial responsibility for
the lower court system from the Ministry of
Justice and Human Rights; Constitutional Court or
Mahkamah Konstitusi (invested by the president on
16 August 2003) has the power of judicial review,
jurisdiction over the results of a general
election, and reviews actions to dismiss a
president from office; Labor Court under
supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in
January 2006; the Anti-Corruption Court has
jurisdiction over corruption cases brought by the
independent Corruption Eradication Commission
parties and leaders:
or PD [Anas URANINGRUM]; Functional Groups Party
or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]; Great Indonesia
Movement Party or GERINDRA [SUHARDI]; Indonesia
Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI
Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman
ISKANDAR]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta
RAJASA]; People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO];
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Luthfi Hasan
ISHAQ]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma
pressure groups and leaders:
the "Disappeared" and Victims of
Violence or KontraS; Indonesia Corruption Watch or
ICW; Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI;
Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; People's Democracy
Fortress or Bendera
ADB, APEC, ARF,
ASEAN, BIS, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO,
G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO,
ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PIF
(partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
representation in the US:
Dino Patti DJALAL
Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
representation from the US:
Scot A. MARCIEL
1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110
8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the
colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit
Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes
courage, white represents purity
to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also
similar to the flag of Poland, which is white
(top) and red
Raya" (Great Indonesia)
According to the 1945 Constitution there are six organs of the
- The People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan
- The Presidency.
- The House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan
- The Supreme Advisory Council (Dewan Pertimbangan
- The State Audit Board (Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan).
- The Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung).
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THE PEOPLE'S CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLY
Article 1 of the 1945 Constitution states that Indonesia is a
republic with sovereignty vested in the people to be fully exercised
by an elected People's Consultative Assembly, which is the highest
political institution in the state. Since the Assembly holds the
supreme power in the state, the people voice their political and
social aspirations through this body.
The major tasks of the Assembly are to sanction the Constitution,
decide the Guidelines of State Policy, and elect the President and
Vice-President for a term of office of five years.
In relation to the Assembly, the President is its Mandatary and,
as such, is accountable to the Assembly for the conduct of
government. In the exercise of his duties, the President is assisted
by the Vice-President.
The total membership of the People's Consultative Assembly is
twice the membership of the House of Representatives*). All members
of the House are concurrently members of the Assembly.
The second half of the Assembly's membership consists of members
from political organizations, the various factions of the Armed
Forces faction, and from Golkar. It also includes regional delegates
and representatives from professional groups.
When Act No. 5 of 1975 was in force (up to the general elections
of 1982), the membership of the House was 460 and that of the
Assembly 920. When the act was amended by Act No. 2 of 1985, the
membership of the House grew to 500, and the membership of the
Assembly to 1,000.
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According to this later Act, the composition of the Consultative
Assembly's membership is as follows:
- The 500 members of the House of Representatives.
- In addition to the above members of the House, political
organizations contending in the general election, namely Partai
Persatuan Pembangunan, PDI and Golkar, as well as the Armed
Forces faction in the House, are allowed additional membership
that is proportionate to their respective membership in the
House. As result of the 1997 General Elections, the above
additional membership was 251.
- Delegates from the First Level Regions or Provinces, shall
number not less than four persons for a province with a
population of less than 1 million, and not more than eight
persons for a province with a population of 15 million people,
making for a total of 149 delegates. These regional delegates
are elected by their respective regional legislative assemblies.
- Representatives of professional groups number 100 persons.
These representatives are appointed by the President on the
recommendations of their respective organizations or at the
Based on Decree No. VII/MPR/1998, the Chairman of the People's
Consultative Assembly will be separate from Chairman of the House of
Representatives. He is assisted by five Vice-Chairmen. The election
of the Assembly's chairman is by consensus among members. Where this
is impossible, voting may be resorted to as provided for by the 1945
The Assembly is composed of five factions:
- The Armed Forces.
- The Functional Group (Golkar).
- The United Development Party (PPP).
- The Indonesian Democracy Party (PDI).
- The Regional delegates.
The Assembly meets not less than once every five years in a
General Session and may convene Special Sessions whenever the need
* On the composition of the House's membership, see under the
heading: The House of Representatives.
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Special Session of the People's
Consultative Assembly (MPR)
One of the political agendas of Reform Cabinet is to hold a
special session of the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) in
Jakarta on November 10-13, 1998. The session adopted the following
- Decree No. VII/MPR/1998 on amendment of the Assembly's
internal rules stipulates that following the May-June 1999,
general elections, the Assembly will elect its own leaders who
will be separate from those of the House of Representatives. In
the Past, Assembly leaders automatically held top posts in the
House. The Assembly leadership will consist of a speaker and a
maximum of five deputies nominated by political parties with the
largest number of seats.
- Decree No. VIII/MPR/ 1998 revokes the 1983 Assembly Decree on
Referendum enables the amendment of the 1945 Constitution in the
future. In the 1983 decree, followed by the 1985 referendum law,
a referendum must be held before the Assembly can review the
- Decree No. IX/MPR/1998 revokes the 1998 decree on the
Guidelines of the State Policy (GBHN). It was replaced by a
scaled down document to cover the period up to the assembly's
next general session scheduled in mid 1999.
- Decree No. X/MPR/1998 on the principles of development reform
to safeguard and normalize the life of the nation stipulates the
objectives of development reform in the economic, political,
legal, social and cultural fields.
- The decree stipulates that the current economic crisis must be
resolved and supported by reform measures. The management of the
economic crisis includes a number of undetailed targets such as
stabilizing the rupiah's exchange rate at reasonable level,
managing the interest rates and inflation, bank restructuring,
food security and solving the private sector debt problem.
The political reform agenda covers the promulgation of new
political laws to foster democratization and facilitate a fair,
direct and free general election by secret ballot in mid 1999.
It also includes provisions to check government power, introduce
good governance and adjust the military's dual function in
accordance with its new paradigm.
The legal reform agenda deals with division of power between
the judicative and executive branches of government and contains
clauses designed to ensure supremacy of the law and protect
basic human rights.
The most notable points on the agenda for socio-cultural
reform are the social safety net programs covering education,
employment and health, the preparation of legal instruments,
infrastructure and programs of action to foster ethics in
business, professions and public administration.
- Decree No. XI/MPR/1998 on good governance, free from
corruption, collusion and nepotism instructs the government to
investigate and deal firmly with former and incumbent government
officials, their families, and cronies as well as business
people suspected of corruption, collusion and nepotism.
- The decree stipulates that officials shall publicly disclose
their wealth before and after their appointment and have them
audited by an institution set up by the head of state. The
institution will be staffed by representatives of the government
and the people. The decree also requires an amendment of the
anti-corruption law to combat graft.
- Decree No. XII/MPR/1998 revokes the 1998 decree granting
special powers in March to the then President Soeharto to
declare a state of emergency and to do anything necessary to
maintain security and stability in the country.
- Decree No. XIII limits the term of office for the president
and vice president to a maximum of two five-year terms.
- Decree No. XIV/MPR/1998 states that a general election will be
held by next May or June at the latest and that the election
will be organized by an independent election committee whose
members will comprise representatives of political parties,
non-governmental organization and the government.
- Decree No. XV/MPR/1998 on the administration of regional
autonomy, management, distribution and harnessing of natural
resources fairly by maintaining a fiscal balance between the
provincial administration and the central government in the
unitary state of the republic of Indonesia to improve the
welfare of local people and the nation as a whole.
- The fiscal balance between the central and provincial
government is to be set with respect to the potential, size and
population of each province and local people's income levels.
- Decree No. XVI/MPR/1998 on political economy in an economic
- National economic development is designed to create a
broad base of small and medium-scale enterprises (SME) and
to foster mutually-beneficial relations between
cooperatives, SMEs, large companies and state enterprises.
- The implementation of economic democracy shall seek to
avoid the concentration of economic assets and forces in the
hands of a small number of people and companies.
- Cooperatives and medium-scale enterprises, as the main
pillars of national economic development, shall be given as
many opportunities, incentives and assistance as possible,
without ignoring the role of big business and state
- National land use shall be organized in a just manner and
the concentration of land use rights and land ownership in
the hands of a few individuals or companies shall be
prevented to enhance the strength of cooperatives, SMEs and
the people at large.
- Banks and financial institutions shall give top priority
to cooperatives and SMEs while continuing to work on the
principle of sound business management.
- Bank Indonesia as the central bank shall be independent
and free of interference from the government and all other
parties and shall be accountable for its conduct.
- Foreign borrowing by the government needs the approval of
the House of Representatives within the annual state budget
and foreign debts shall strengthen, and not burden, the
- The private sector shall be fully responsible for its
foreign borrowing and shall be closely monitored by the
government in a transparent manner.
- Economic democracy for workers shall be achieved through
labor participation and freedom of association in line with
the law and ownership share in the company employing them.
- Decree No. XVII/MPR/1998 on human rights requires all state
institutions to enforce and respect them and that the president
and the House of Representative (DPR) ratify all United Nations
conventions on human rights.
- A law must be issued to give the National Commission on Human
Rights the legal authority to monitor and report on the
implementation of human rights conventions. The current
Commission was established by presidential decree in January
- Decree No. XVIII/MPR/1998 revokes the 1978 Assembly decree on
the Propagation and Implementation of Pancasila (P4). This
decree rules that the government must stop the compulsory P4
propagation program, and added a chapter to the original draft
decree on the right to information.
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The President as Chief Executive
In the government system of Indonesia, the President is both head
of state and chief executive. He holds office for a term of five
years and is eligible for re-election. Since the President is also
the Mandatary of the People's Consultative Assembly, he must execute
his duties in compliance with the Guidelines of State Policy as
decreed by the Assembly.
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The Reform Development Cabinet
After Soeharto resigned the new President, B.J. Habibie,
announced his cabinet and swore them in on May 23, 1998. B.J.
Habibie named his cabinet the Development Reform Cabinet.
The Development Reform Cabinet is composed as follows:
- Minister of Home Affairs: Lt. Gen. Syarwan Hamid
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Ali Alatas, SH.
- Minister of Defense and Security: Gen. Wiranto
- Minister of Justice: Muladi
- Minister of Information: Lt. Gen. Yunus Yosfiah
- Minister of Finance: Bambang Subianto
- Minister of Trade and Industry: Rahardi Ramelan
- Minister of Agriculture: Soleh Solahuddin
- Minister of Forestry: Muslimin Nasution
- Minister of Mining and Energy: Kuntoro Mangkusubroto
- Minister of Public Works: Rachmadi B. Sumadhijo
- Minister of Communications: Giri Suseno Hadihardjono
- Minister of Cooperatives, Small and Medium Enterprises: Adi
- Minister of Manpower: Fahmi Idris
- Minister of Transmigration Resettlemet of Forest Squatters: AM
- Minister of Tourism, Arts and Culture: Marzuki Usman
- Minister of Education and Culture: Juwono Sudarsono
- Minister of Health: Farid Anfasa Moeloek
- Minister of Religious Affairs: Malik Fajar
- Minister of Social Affairs: Yustika S. Baharsyah
Departments 1-5 above comprise the Political and Security field,
6-17 comprise the Economic, Financial and Industrial field and 18-21
make up the field of People's Welfare.
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- Minister Co-ordinator for Political and Security Affairs:
- Minister Co-ordinator for Economic, Financial, and Industrial
Affairs: Ginandjar Kartasasmita
- Minister Co-ordinator for People's Welfare/Poverty
Eradication: Haryono Suyono
- Minister Co-ordinator for Development Supervision/State
Administrative Reform: Hartarto Sastrosoenarto
- Minister/State Secretary: Akbar Tanjung
- Minister of State for National Development Planning
concurrently Chairman of the National Development Planning
- Minister of State for Research and Technology concurrently
Chairman of the Agency for the Assessment and Application of
- Minister of State for Population Affairs concurrently Chairman
of National Family Planning Coordinating Board: Ida Bagus Oka
- Minister of State for People's Housing and Settlement: Theo L.
- Minister of State for Youth Affairs and Sports: R. Agung
- Minister of State for Empowerment of State Enterprises: Tanri
- Minister of State for the Role of Women: Tuti Alawiyah
- Minister of State for Food and Horticulture: A.M. Saefuddin
- Minister of State for Mobilization of Investment
Funds/Chair-man of the Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM):
- Minister of State for Agrarian Affairs/Chairman of the
National Agrarian Board: Hasan Basri Durin
- Minister of State for Environment concurrently Chairman of
Environmental Impact Management Board: Panangian Siregar
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High Officials with the Status of a State Minister
- Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces: Gen. Wiranto
- Attorney General: A.M. Ghalib
- Governor of Bank Indonesia (Central Bank): Syahril Sabirin
The structure and organization of governmental departments are
uniform, as provided for in Presidential Decision No. 44 of 1974.
This requires that a government department shall consist of four
- The leadership, which is in the hands of the minister
- The administrative services headed by a secretary-general
- The operational services, each headed by a director-general
- The institutional control, to be exercised by an
As time has passed, the various government departments have
expanded in size and responsibilities to accommodate the rising
demands in public administration. Hence, a fifth component has been
added, namely, a research and development division whose head has
the same rank as the other executives.
All these executives are appointed and dismissed by the President
on the recommendation of the minister. In the exercise of their
duties, however, they are answerable to the minister. They are
guided by the principles of coordination, integration and
synchronization within their own department as well as in relation
to other departments and institutions.
The secretariat-general is divided into bureaus with a maximum
number of five. Each directorate-general is divided into
directorates numbering no more than five, and the
inspectorate-general is divided into inspectorates, also numbering
five at most. The research and development division may have a
number of centers, each with a specific task in research and
development to meet the growing requirements of the department.
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The House of Representatives
The total membership of the House of Representatives is 500. It
is composed of:
- 425 members representing the political organizations that take
part in the general election, i.e., Partai Persatuan, Golkar and
- 75 members appointed from the Armed Forces.
To determine the number of the elected members in the House, the
following procedure applies. Each elected member represents at least
400,000 citizens. Hence, if the population is estimated at
197.013.619 people, the total number of elected members is 425. (The
General Elections Institute).
During general elections the provinces form constituencies and
are entitled to representation by elected members, the number being
derived from the division of the provincial population by 400,000.
Provinces with very small populations are represented by a number of
elected members not less than the number of districts in the
province and each district shall have not less than one
The reason for the appointment of 75 members from the Armed
Forces is that they are not only an instrument of defense and
security, they also constitute a socio-political force. However,
servicemen cannot take part in general elections. To ensure that
they are not denied their political rights as citizens, their
representatives in the House are appointed on the recommendation of
the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
The House consists of four factions, representing Golkar, the
Armed Forces, the United Development Party (PPP) and the Indonesian
Democracy Party (PDI).
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The System of Deliberation and Voting
Deliberations are held in the House to reach a consensus (mufakat)
on any question. In the event a consensus is not achieved, the
matter is referred to the Steering Committee. Should this Committee
arrive at a consensus, all members will be duly informed. In case of
failure, the matter is submitted to the plenary session of the
House, which must then decide whether the matter is to be put to a
vote, postponed or dropped altogether.
Voting requires the presence of all factions and a quorum of
two-thirds of the total membership of the house. Resolutions or
decisions are adopted by majority votes. Voting on nominations and
appointments is done by secret ballot; on any other matters, by a
show of hands. If a vote cannot be accomplished because a
two-third's quorum cannot be reached or because all factions are not
present, the matter is returned to the Steering Committee.
The annual session of the House starts on August 16 and ends on
August 15 of the following year. Each session is divided into
meetings with intervals for recesses.
At the opening of each annual session of the House, the President
delivers his address of state. This is always on August 16, the day
before Indonesia's independence day commemoration. In the address
the President reviews the developments of the past year and outlines
the prospects for the coming year.
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Law Making Process
The 1945 Constitution states that the House of Representatives is
the body of the State. The Government submits bills to the House for
consideration and approval, but members of the House can initiate
their own bills. Such bills must be accompanied by an explanatory
memorandum, signed by at least 30 members, and submitted to the
Speaker of the House. During the discussion of the proposed bill,
the initiating members may make alterations or withdraw it.
If the House passes the bill, it will become law when it has
obtained the signature of the President. By authority of the
President, the Minister/State Secretary will publish the Act in the
State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia and henceforth the Act
comes into force.
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The Supreme Advisory Council
Following Article 16 of the 1945 Constitution and Act No. 3 of
1967 as amended by Act No. 4 of 1978, the functions of the Supreme
Advisory Council are to answer any questions that the President may
ask in relation to the affairs of the State, including questions on
political, economic, socio-cultural and military affairs.
Conversely, the Council may submit recommendations or express its
views on any matter of national importance.
Members of the Council are nominated by the House and appointed
by the President for a term of five years. Certain set conditions
must be met to qualify for appointments.
The Council is headed by a Chairman and has four Vice-Chairmen
and 45 members. The permanent committees of the Council are:
- The political committee.
- The economic, financial and industrial committee.
- The committee on people's welfare.
- The committee on defense and security.
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The Supreme Court
The Supreme Court is the judicial arm of the State and exists
beside the legislative and the executive branches. It enjoys an
independent status in the socio-political fabric. It was not until
1968 that the restructuring of the Supreme Court was completed to
meet the conditions set out in the 1945 Constitution, i.e., to be
free from government intervention in the exercise of justice. In
1970 a law was enacted that laid down the basic principle of
Indonesia's judicial powers.
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The State Audit Board
The functions of the State Audit Board are outlined in Article 23
of the 1945 Constitution. Its main function is to conduct official
examinations of government financial accounts. The findings of the
Board are submitted to the House of Representatives, which approves
the government budget. In his annual state address on August 16, the
President reports to the House on the Government's performance
during the past fiscal year. Detailed accounts of government
revenues and expenditures and a full report on the progress achieved
in development and administration, are recounted in the supplement
to the presidential speech.
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The Government Apparatus
A major concern of the Government has been the creation of an
efficient, clean and respectable administration on national and
regional level. This is understandable considering that the progress
achieved in national development has created considerable expansion
in government activities and responsibilities, and pressing public
demands for continuous improvements and streamlining of routine and
more often of development administration.
Government regulations that prove to be unnecessary red tape have
been abolished by deregulation and debureaucratization. However,
administrative reform that will achieve the ideal results is a long
and painstaking effort. Thus, preventive and repressive actions have
been and will continue to be taken until abuse of authority and
malpractice on the part of the state apparatus are reduced to a
minimum or, hopefully, eliminated.
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The structure and organization of local governments follow the
pattern of the national government. On the national level, the
President is the Chief Executive and works with a cabinet of
ministers. Next to the national executive is the House of
Representatives, with whom the government enacts laws and determines
the national budget.
Similarly, the Governor is the Chief Executive in the province
and works with a staff of regional officials. Side by side is the
provincial legislative, with whom the regional government concurs on
regional legislation and decisions on the budget.
On the district (Kabupaten) and municipal (Kotamadya) levels, the
Chief Executives are respectively, the Bupati (district head) and
Walikota kodya (mayor). Again, the Bupati/Walikota kodya concurs
with the local legislative on matters relating to local government
regulation and the budget. Both provincial and district municipality
governments are granted autonomy.
Where the President is the Head of State, the Governor is the
Head of the Province and concurrently represents the Central
Government in his region. Similarly, the Bupati/Walikota kodya is
the Head of the Kabupaten/kotamadya and concurrently represents the
Governor in his district/municipality.
The procedure of appointing a governor is as follows: The
provincial legislature elects two or three candidates. The election
result is reported to the national government, via the Minister of
Home Affairs. The winning candidate is then appointed Governor by
the President on the recommendation of the Minister.
In a similar way, the Kabupaten/kotamadya legislature elects two
or three candidates to be proposed to the Minister of Home Affairs.
One of these then is appointed Bupati/Walikota kodya, by the
Minister on the recommendation of the Governor.
Below the district municipal level the administrative units are
not autonomous. These are the Kecamatan, or Sub-District
Administrations and the Kelurahan, or the Village Administrations.
The Kecamatan is an administrative sub-division of the Kabupaten or
Kotamadya. It is headed by a Camat. The Kecamatan office is in
charge of the administration of the sub-district, social welfare and
economic affairs. Some national government departments have branches
in the Kecamatan office.
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The system of village administration is not much different from
that of the Kecamatan. The Lurah, who heads the kelurahan, is
assisted by a secretary and section heads. Unlike the Kecamatan,
however, national government departments do not have branch offices
in a Kelurahan. Both the Camat and the Lurah are civil servants
appointed on merit from the ranks of local government officials.
In the Desa, or village, the administrative system is somewhat
different. The village head, is elected by the village's adult
population. The elected candidate is then appointed by the Bupati on
behalf of the governor. In the office of the village head there is a
secretary and several section heads. A unique feature of village
life is the Village Council of Elders, which is composed of 9 to 15
prominent village leaders. The Council makes decisions in
concurrence with the village head. In fact, this grass-roots level
administration of the village, with its indigenous system of
democracy and mutual help, was the inspiration of the founding
fathers of the Republic when they decided on the government as laid
down in Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.
The "Lembaga Ketahanan Masyarakat Desa" is a village
organization whose task is to promote socio-economic conditions so
that the village becomes a viable rural community. The organization
is headed by the Village Head or Lurah who is assisted by a
secretary. Other members of the organization are drawn from the
Community living is fostered by two neighborhood organizations.
"The Rukun Tetangga" takes care of social and
administrative matters of a neighborhood, such as the registration
of families, security, garbage collection, etc. "The Rukun
Warga" is the coordinating organization of a number of Rukun
Tetangga. Both these organizations are voluntary and non-formal and
mainly designed to assist in the work of Lurah/village head.
- The budget for regional administration and development is
composed of the following:
- Budget allocation from the Central Government to Local
- Central Government grants to Local Governments.
- Taxes collected by Local Governments with the approval of the
- Corporate profits of Local Government enterprises. e. Credits
secured by Local Governments.
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Administrative Division Regions
The Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia is divided into 27
provinces which are sub-divided into 243 districts, 55
municipalities, 16 administrative municipalities, 35 administrative
cities, and 3,841 sub-districts or kecamatans.
Three of the provinces are special territories, namely the
Capital City of Jakarta, the Special Territory of Yogyakarta, and
the Special Territory of Aceh. Villages are classified into desas or
rural villages and kelurahans or urban villages. The head of a desa,
is elected by the village community, whereas the head of a kelurahan
which is called lurah, is a civil servant appointed by a camat or
head of a sub-district on behalf of the governor.
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Information provided by the Directorate
of Foreign Information Services, Department of Information, Republic of