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Indonesia's Transportation

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684 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 10
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 171
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 50
914 to 1,523 m: 64
under 914 m: 34 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 513
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 484 (2010)
64 (2010)
condensate 735 km; condensate/gas 73 km; gas 5,800 km; oil 5,721 km; oil/gas/water 12 km; refined products 1,370 km (2009)
total: 8,529 km
country comparison to the world: 25
narrow gauge: 8,529 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2008)
total: 437,759 km
country comparison to the world: 14
paved: 258,744 km
unpaved: 179,015 km (2008)
21,579 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 5
Merchant marine:
total: 1,244
country comparison to the world: 8
by type: bulk carrier 95, cargo 601, chemical tanker 57, container 112, liquefied gas 17, passenger 47, passenger/cargo 76, petroleum tanker 214, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 8
foreign-owned: 61 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 7, Malaysia 1, Norway 4, Singapore 42, South Korea 1, Taiwan 1, US 2)
registered in other countries: 87 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, Hong Kong 8, Liberia 4, Mongolia 2, Panama 14, Singapore 53, unknown 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
Transportation - note:
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift



The development of the transportation system is designed to support the development of the economy, the national stability and inter-regional equality as well as distribution to realize the Indonesian Archipelagic Outlook.

In Repelita VI, the Government developed a national transportation system with special attention to undeveloped areas, mainly in eastern Indonesia, improved town transportation that supports industry, agriculture, trade and tourism and increased the quality of transportation means and infrastructures, the community's role, human resources and technology.

To achieve those targets, transportation is developed through eight (8) programs, comprise five (5) main programs and three (3) supporting programs.

The main programs cover the development of the national transportation system, the construction of roads and bridges and improvement of land, sea and air transportation.

The supporting programs cover the development of meteorology and geophysics, improvement of search and rescue, the promotion of education and training and development of transportation resources.

The national transportation system in the fourth year of Repelita VI developed several strategic concepts and basic policies on the transportation system, in accordance with national space planning aimed at supporting economic development.

Besides, the Government conducted various studies and researches to help the concept of the national transportation system.

During four years of Repelita VI, the road network was rehabilitated.

The construction of new roads and bridges was directed towards opening remote areas, developing urban, transmigration and production areas and supporting the development of strategic locations.

In 1997/98, the Government rehabilitated 33,482 km of roads and 8,636 meters of bridges. If compared with those in 1996/97, it showed and increase of 3.3% and 8.7% respectively.

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The improvement of strategic roads and reconstruction of artery and collateral roods, and bridges was to support the development of fast growing regions and industrial development centers, serve container transportation and port access.

In 1997/98, 5,540 km of artery and access roads were improved and 16,184 meters of bridges reconstructed. Meanwhile, 9,794 km of local roads were improved and 21,595 meters of local bridges reconstructed. If compared with those in 1996/97, where 5,773 km of artery and accers roads were improved there was a decline of four (4) percent. Meanwhile 15.222 meters of arteries and access bridges were improved showing a rise of 6.3%. The construction of roads and bridges is aimed at opening remote areas, not accessible by road transportation.

In 1997/98, the Government constructed 1,221 km of artery and collateral roads and 4,790 meters of bridges. Meanwhile, the Government constructed 42 km of toll roads. If compared with 1996/97, the construction of artery and access roads decreased by 34%, while toll roads rose to 83%.

In 1997/98, 62,932 km artery and access roads were kept in good condition or an increase of 6.6% or compared with that in 1996/97 with only 59,020 km. Meanwhile 3,668 km of unstable roads in 1997/98, was 51,6% less if compared to that of 1996/97 with 7,580 km. Of 66,600 km of artery and collateral roads in 1997/98, 94.5% was in good condition.

Expansion of the road network and their improvement promoted other development activities leading to the people's welfare, before the monetary crisis, serving 13.7 million vehicles in the first year of Repelita VI and rose to 17.7 million by the fourth year.

In the first year of Repelita VI, 121.7 million passengers and 16.7 million tons of freight were transported. It grew to 158,7 million passengers and 19.1 million tons of freight in the fourth year of Repelita. The number of passenger transported by river, lake and ferry also rose from 63 million passengers in the first year to 82.2 million passengers in the fourth year of Repelita VI.

Meanwhile, 28.6 million tons of freight were transported in the first year of Repelita VI rising to 32.5 million tons in the fourth year.

At the end of Repelita V, 13.0 million vehicles served road transportation and grew to 17.7 million vehicles by the fourth year.

Within the limits of the state budget, the development of road facilities in 1997/98 was to give priority to certain regions, where accidents could easily happen by supplying and installing 6,833 road signs, 38 traffic lights, 392,570 meters of surface signs and 51,260 meters of safety fences and continue the construction of an Automatic Traffic Control System (ATCS) in Bandung.

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The development of river, lake and ferry transportation is aimed at providing better access to the hinterland, border and remote areas, especially in eastern Indonesia.

In the efforts to support undeveloped Indonesian regions, the Government subsidies river, lake, ferry transportation by operating ferries.

Therefore, in 1997/98, the Government built nine (9) pioneer ships and 10 ferry quays, 17 river quays and three (3) lake quays.

Besides, the Government rehabilitated several ferry and river quays, improved the safety of transportation by putting up ferry and river signs and cleaned 125 km of water ways.

Meanwhile the Government distributed funds to supply five (5) fast ferries serving Jakarta-Surabaya, Banjarmasin-Surabaya and Balikpapan - Pare-Pare lines to ease off these transportation routes.

In 1997/98, the Government added 64 routes of pioneer ferry lines or an increase of 23% if compared to that of the previous year, in the routes to eastern Indonesia.

In 1997/98, ferry lines in Indonesia were supported by 168 ships and seven (7) water-trucks, of which 91 were owned by the private sectors and the rest owned by the state-run company PT. ASDP.

The number of passengers, freight and vehicles going by river, lake and ferry transportation in 1997/98 increased by 4.9%, 4.4% and 4.6% respectively, if compared with those in 1996/97.

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The development of sea transportation covers the improvement of shipping safety; expansion of seaport facilities and the promotion of shipping fleets.

Those three activities are directed towards supporting the smooth flow of freight and passengers. With a greatly revised State Budget in 1997/98, the Government constructed 2,576 square meters of seaport facilities, including 1,529 square meters or 59.9% of pioneer quays, rehabilitated 8,309 square meters of quays, built 2,475 square meters of warehouses, rehabilitated 1,250 square meters of warehouses and constructed 119,228 square meters of open storage and 3,395 square meters of passenger terminals.

To improve shipping safety in Indonesian territorial waters the Government installed supporting navigation means, in 1997/98 consisting of 17 light houses, 49 light signs and 6 radio communication equipment while 13.3 million cubic meters of mud in the main shipping lines were dredged.

The national shipping fleet is grouped into the Nusantara Shipping, Traditional Shipping, Pioneer Shipping, Special Shipping and Overseas Shipping Fleets.

In 1997/98, the Nusantara Shipping Fleet operated 1,314 ships with a capacity of 4,215,945 DWT, transporting 70,557,541 tons of cargo. In 1996/97, there were 79 ships transporting 9,236,906 tons of cargo. With the addition of one ship in 1997/98, 4,382,606 persons were transported or a 4.9% rise compared with that in 1996/97.

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In 1997/98, the Traditional Shipping Fleet was the same as the previous year, but its capacity decreased to 397,616 DWT. while 8,582,171 tons of cargo were carried, an increase of 257,872 tons or 3.1% if compared with that in 1996/97.

Pioneer shipping is the Government's effort to provide sea transportation services in remote areas, not served yet by other transportation modes.

In 1997/98, the Government operated 37 pioneer shipping trajects served by 37 ships. This was one (1) traject and one (1) ship more than the previous year.

Meanwhile, the number of harbors being called fell to 277 locations with a frequency of 23 times.

The number of passengers in 1997/98 increased to 314,776 persons or 6.2%, if compared with that in 1996/97. On the other hand, 1997/98. the cargo dropped to 98,929 tons or 10.3%, if compared with that in 1996/97.

The Special Shipping Fleet received 2 units, but there was no change in the same period. Only 281,513,187 tons were transported a drop of 36,855,029 tons or 11.6%, it compared with that in 1996/97.

In 1997/98, 37 ships with a capacity of 386,057 DWT carried 39,715,797 tons of cargo, or decreased 11.6% if compared with that in 1996/97.

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The development of air transport covers the improvement of airport facilities and flight safety, management of air traffic and promotion of the air fleet.

In the fourth years of Repelita VI, the Government lengthened 35,947 square meters of runways, constructed and expanded 7,607 square meters of passenger terminals, built 5,167 square meters of operational supporting buildings. The Government built Buli-Airport in Maluku to open isolated areas.

In 1997/98, the capability of big airports was the same as in 1996/97 namely seven (7) airports serve B-747, six (6) airports serve DC-10/MD-11/A-300, 14 airports serve DC-9/B-737, 16 airports serve F-28 and 24 airports only serve F-27/CN-235.

However, the number of small airports serving Cassa-212 increased from 199 in 1996/97 to 120 in 1997/98 with the addition of Buli Airport.

The Government has opened 23 airports as the gateway of international flights from Medan, Pakanbaru, Palembang, Tanjung Pinang, Jakarta, Pontianak, Tarakan, Manado, Jayapura, Biak, Merauke, Ambon, Kupang, Denpasar, Padang, Balikpapan, Surabaya, Surakarta, Batam, Banda Aceh, Bandung, Mataram and Ujung Pandang, of which, 21 airports serve foreign airline companies.

In the efforts to develop and regenerate airplanes in 1997/98, the State-owned companies had rented several planes. In June 1998, 114 planes operated on scheduled flights. It dropped by 16% if compared with that in 1996/97, due to the present monetary crisis.

In 1997/98, the number of passengers and cargo carried by the national fleet on domestic routes fell by 6.2% for passengers and increased by 0.9% for cargo traffic.

In 1997/98, the number of passengers carried by pioneer flights increased by 12.6%.

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In 1997/98, six (6) meteorological stations were built, three (3) meteorological stations improved, three (3) climatological stations built along with three (3) climatological stations and one (1) geophysical station. The Government also built 210 rain observation posts and air polutional observation post.

In 1997/98, the meteorology and geophysics service collected 1.5 million meteorological data, 450,000 of climatological data, 26,000 geophysical data and 2,000 atmosphere compositions. The data were used in various development sectors, especially in the field of shipping, aviation, agriculture, geophysics and the environment.

The Government is maintaining better cooperation in the field of research, data and information exchanges while improving the quality of human resources with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and International Union of Geophysical and Geodetic (IUGG) and other meteorological and geophysical organizations in ASEAN, Australia and Pacific countries.

SAR's capability in 1997/98 was being developed to enhance its services. This effort was realized through the supply of various SAR equipment such as three (3) sets of rubber boats and rescue boats, five (5) sets of diving equipment and other SAR communication equipment a.o. 52 sets of Handy Talky (HT), six (6) sets of single side band and SAR medical equipment.

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In 1997/98, the Government held various education and training courses, consisting of basic education, for 6,792 participants, pre-function education, for 6,104 participants, structural education, upgrading and post graduate education. The Government also sent 306 persons for education and training abroad.

Education and training during 1997/98 was attended by 4,241 persons, consisting of 306 persons in land transportation, 2,636 persons in sea transportation, 975 persons in air transports and 324 persons in meteorology and geophysics. The Government has built educational means and infrastructure covering the supply of teaching equipment and training planes. For that purpose 20,767 square meters training and education hall were built in Ujung Pandang, Palembang and Curug. While training halls and their supporting means were rehabilitated in Semarang and Surabaya with 128 educational moduls and 4 packages of education curriculum.

During the fourth year of Repelita VI, the Government conducted several researches on the original destinations of national transportation, the development of long-term and regional transportation.

Research in the development of land, sea and air transportation covers the study of integrated transportation in the eastern part of Indonesia and North Australia, evaluation, deregulation and debureaucratization in the transportation sector to improve service quality.

In 1997/98, the Government established a study of national communication base data, the Executive Information System (EIS) of communication, enhancement of information on transportation and state assets, management of the impact of transportation on the environment and technical guidance on the environment in the field of land, sea and air transportation.

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In the framework of boosting the number of post-offices and giro service centers, in 1997/98, the Government added 19 units making it 5,090 units.

Through Service Point Development Strategy (SPSP), the Government has developed special service units in the remote and rural areas in the form of postal houses, postal agents, village postal agents, postal shops for family welfare, post and stamp kiosks (BPM) and school post offices.

In 1993/94, the special services had only 8,461 units, but in 1997/98 it increased to 11,453 units.

To improve the distribution of postal and giro services, the Government has added 35 mobile post-offices, consisting of one (1) four-wheeled vehicle for urban areas to serve four (4) new terminals and 29 motorcycles and motorboats that serving 230 new terminals.

The 557 mobile post offices for urban areas in 1997/98 served 1,386 terminals, 2,964 units served 10,550 terminals in rural areas.

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In 1997/98, the Government introduced new postal services in the form of optimal parcels namely to send parcels with non-standard form at home, insurance for delays, damaged and lost parcels.

The role of cooperatives and private companies mainly in small and middle-class business has been increased through cooperation in the form of postal and giro service agencies, particularly through SPSP.

To enhance its role in collecting the community's fund, the state-run PT. Pos Indonesia engaged in various activities such as giro, post-checks and money order services in 1997/98.

Production of PT. Pos Indonesia in 1997/98 increased to 117.6%, 277.9% and 108.8% respectively, if compared with those in 1993/94.

As supplier of financial services, in December 1997, PT. Pos Indonesia signed a joint-cooperation agreement with a private bank and several national companies to establish PT. Bank Pos to supply banking services for small-scale businesses and the weak economic groups.

The Indonesian Philately Association until 1997/98 had 777,959 members in 27 provinces, compared to 149,659 members in 1993/94.

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During the fourth year of Repelita VI, 4,688,650 telephone lines were added, so that the central telephone capacity until 1997/98 was 7,701,543 lines covering all provincial and district capitals, 70% sub-district capitals and 39% of the villages.

To support the equal provision of telecommunication services for the community at large, the Government has set up public telephones and telecommunication stalls (wartel).

In 1997/98, of the 117,606 public telephones 71,035 were coin operated units (TUC) and 46,671 card operated units (TUK).

In 1997/98, the total number of telecommunication stalls was 6,257 units with a capacity of 35,117 lines, a four fold increase if compared with that in 1993/94, with only 1,257 units with a capacity of 8,445 lines.

The public radio calling services (RPUU) customers in 1997/98 swelled to 501,605 customers or multiplied nearly six (6) times if compared with that in 1993/94, with only 87,118 customers.

In the same period, 913.052 lines of mobile telephone network (STB), consisting of 212,776 lines of analog STB and 700,276 lines of digital STB were laid out. If compared with that in 1993/94, it showed an increase of 31,662 lines.

In improving telecommunication services at home and abroad, the Government continues to develop terrestrial transmission, expand digital microwave transmission in Sumatra, Nusatenggara, Kalimantan and Sulawesi, improves Optical Fibre Communication Network (SKSO) in Lampung and Java, maintain a Sea Cable Communication Network (SKKL) of optical fiber between Indonesia - France as part of SKKL South East Asia - Middle East - West Europe (SEA-ME-WE) II and uses optical fiber between Jakarta-Surabaya-Australia.

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Until 1997/98, International Direct Dialing (SLI) services could link all provincial, district and sub-district capitals with automatic central system in Indonesia with 256 destination cities abroad.

Meanwhile the Direct Dialing Services in 1997/98 could be done from 420 locations in Indonesia to 43 destination countries abroad.

Until 1997/98, the Government had operated 15 Cable Network Maintenance Centers in 10 cities namely Medan, Palembang, Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi, Bandung, Semarang, Surabaya, Denpasar and Ujung Pandang.

The ratio of call success as main indicator of service quality in 1997/98 achieved 61.7% for local links and 58.6% for long distance direct dialing (SLJJ).

In the same period, the ratio of call success for international lines to Indonesia reached 57.6% and from Indonesia to abroad 63.1%.

Radio frequency control and utilization of the satellite orbit is used to regulate domestic and international frequencies.

In 1997/98, the Government set up two new permanent stations, four (4) mobile stations and three (3) Automatic Direction Finder stations. So by the fourth year of Repelita VI, there were five (5) permanent stations, 80 mobile stations and three (3) automatic direction finder stations. Meanwhile, the Government had issued 200,366 radio concession permits, an increase from only 67,876 permits in 1993/94.

Besides, the Government had issued permits for six (6) TV stations, including five (5) private TV stations till 1997/98.

Since January 6, 1996 the government has allowed private companies and cooperatives to take part in telecommunication development through Operational Cooperation (KSO) covering the construction of two (2) million telephone lines, of which 969,670 lines were laid through KSO partnership.

Standardization of equipment in 1997/98 was developed through the formation of national standardization in the field of post and telecommunication and the adoption of the international standard.

Until 1997/98, the Government has granted 731 certificates and 62,438 labels for telecommunication equipment.

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Besides the main programs, the Government also implemented 2 supporting programs in 1997/98 for education, training and counseling and another for research, postal and telecommunication development.

Several institutions trained 45,644 additional workers in the field of post and telecommunication.

Besides public telecommunication, the government also developed special defense and security telecommunication systems in the fourth year of Repelita VI.

Special telecommunication is used by the State-run railways company in the form of Automatic Train Telephones (TOKA). Until 1997/98, the number of TOKA in operation had been 4,210 lines, to controll train operations in 21 control sections at 420 stations.

To support shipping safety, the Coastal Radio Station (SRP) broadcast and receive news of disasters, "Save Our Soul" (SOS) from ship to the shore.

To support flight services the trunking radio system has been utilized in various airports such as Hang Nadim in Batam, Soekarno-Hatta in Cengkareng, Adisucipto in Yogyakarta, Juanda in Surabaya, Syamsudin Noor in Banjarmasin, Sepinggan in Balikpapan, Hasanuddin in Ujung Pandang and Sam Ratulangi in Manado.

Meanwhile, the Department of Forestry has developed a special forestry radio and data communication network in 27 regional offices. The telecommunication network of PT TELKOM is used for inter-provincial connections.

The Government has set up a power Line carrier (PLC) in the from of an optical fiber transmission network and communication radio to support the electrical service facility.

Until 1997/98, the PLC capacity installed by the Government was 1.068 units of optical fiber transmission network and 935 units of communication radio.

To effectively support defense and security, the defense and security communication system is developed, and adjusted to the advanced technology such as satellite communication digital microwave and radio trunking.

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From the Cradle to the Grave

The initial construction of railway tracks between Kemijen and Tanggung (both in Central Java) in June 1864 commenced the development of railways in this archipelago presently known as Indonesia. Meanwhile, the opening of the Kemijen and Tanggung in June 1884 initiated the railways services in this archipelago which was then colonized by the Dutch through the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC). Years later the construction works had been extended to the adjacent line sections, and not only in Java but also in Sumatra including in Aceh and Riau. Railway tracks in the latter was removed by the Japanese imperialists to Burma during their occupation. It is worth noting that at the end of Word War II the total length of railway tracks on the islands of Java, Madura and Sumatra was 6,458 km. At the time the railway services was operated by the Nederlansch Indische Spoorweg maat-schappy (NIS).

It is believed that the main reasons for the initial construction of the railways were to underpin the sectors of agriculture, plantation and mining in particularly and economic growth in general. More specifically it was initially aimed mainly at coping with the exported freight transport from the upstream inland to down stream ports.

During the course of history, it has changed its status from DKRI (The State Railways of the Republic of Indonesia) from 1945 to 1950, to DKA (the Indonesian Railways) from 1950 to 1964, to PNKA (the State-owned Railways Enterprise) from 1969 to 1971 to PJKA (the Indonesian Railways) from 1971 to 1990 and finally to Perumka (the Indonesian Railway Public corporation).

The Perumka has a mission to undertake mass-transportation in a bid to help improve national economic growth and to support development in other sectors, in the context of distribution equity.

Meanwhile the Perumka's main task is to provide mass-passenger and freight services to the general public.

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Manned by 36,429 personnel operation, Perumka in 1996 operated 5,041.745 kilometers, tracks 255 electric diesel locomotives, 146 hydraulic diesel locomotives, 173 executive class coaches, 311business class coaches, 559 economy class coaches and 85 miscellaneous coaches as well as 4,540 four-axle freight wagons and 6,437 two-axle freight wagons. In fiscal year 1997/1998, a total of 158.6 million passenger journeys was made and 19.0 million tons of freight conveyed by Perumka.

Perumka continues to add and improve its infrastructures and facilities. In fiscal year 1997/98 alone Perumka rehabilitated 166.8 km of railway tracks, procured 100 units of electric powered trains, 10 units of economy class coaches, rehabilitated 45 locomotives and procured 15 diesel locomotives. At the same time it also installed a number of road signs, traffic lights and constructed an automatic traffic control system (ATCS) in Bandung. Gradually, the manual traffic control systems have been replaced by automatic ones.

These days Perumka has a Jakarta-based workshop for coaches, Yogyakarta-based workshop for locomotives and Surabaya-based workshop for freight wagons.

Passenger services have improved in speed and comfort with the replacement of out-of-data electric and diesel traction, which has also helped to reduce operating costs, and with the replacement of old passenger coaches by new stock, with improved amenities.

A fairly luxurious passenger train currently in operation is Argobromo Anggrek, the second generation of Agrobromo passenger trains consisting of one power train, five executive class coaches, one restaurant and bar and one business center coach equipped with sophisticated technological communication devices like cellular phones, facsimile, inter net and a photocopying machine, and wide-screened videos in each coach. Argobromo Anggrek (Orchid Agrobromo) serves to link Jakarta and Surabaya four time a day and night.

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The 1993 Guidelines of the State Policy (GBHN) envisaged a harmonious and balanced population dispersion, through transmigration programs, directed towards a voluntary transmigration scheme. Transmigration in the Sixth Five-Year Development Plan (Repelita VI) was to support the regional development, widen population and manpower dispersion, create new employment opportunities, improve the welfare of the society in general, and of the transmigrants in particular, strengthen the state defense and security as well as the unity and integrity of the nation.

The transmigration target in Repelita VI was to encourage the people to voluntary transmigration, by providing them better access to the transmigration areas and by gradually increasing the transmigrants' income until they had saved their money for business expansion, and to improve their social welfare especially education and health.

The transmigration target in Repelita VI was: the resettlement of around 600,000 families consisting of 350,000 semi-and fully government-sponsored transmigrant families and 250,000 self-supporting voluntary transmigrant families; the opening of 1,200 units of new resettlements areas of around 500,000 ha of agricultural land; and 350,000 housing units complete with clean water and public facilities.

To attain their target, transmigration policies, encouraged transmigration to eastern Indonesia to support regional development; alleviate poverty, stimulate voluntary transmigration; develop agribusiness, agro industry and other enterprises.

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The Department of Transmigration and Resettlement of Forest Squatters set up a coordinating body at national level to assist the Minister in formulating short, medium and long-term integrated transmigration programs and control their implementation.

The selection of a settlement may take years to complete as soil scientists, crop experts, civil engineers, geologists, agricultural economists, anthropologists, and regional planners are involved. They test the soil, measure rainfall and examine topography and assess transportation requirements as well as market accessibility.

After extensive field work and paperwork are completed the physical work of constructing a new settlement for the settlers begins. Although final tilling of the land for planting is left to the new transmigrants, the Department of Transmigration provides infrastructure such as roads, school buildings, medical clinics, houses of worship as well as the actual homes to be occupied by the settlers.

Prime areas for transmigration settlements are those that have been damaged by forest fire or waste-land of elephant grass although these areas are cultivable. The central highlands of Irian Jaya are off limits to transmigration settlements even though much of the highlands has been damaged by stone axes of the Dani tribe and by fires.

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The main program is designing technique and layout of new transmigration settlements; the development of infrastructure and means of settlements; the opening of farming areas, establishment of housing and public facilities; development and maintenance afterward.

Until the fourth year of Repelita VI 516 new transmigration resettlement units (UPT) and 135 new villages with a low population density had been established. In addition, to accommodate 89,784 families of self-supporting voluntary transmigrants (TSM), the old resettlement units had also been expanded. Since the beginning of Repelita VI (1994/95), eastern Indonesia has been considered as potential area for transmigration settlement, such as Kalimantan and Irian Jaya. The majority or 68,6% of new transmigration settlement units developed until fiscal year 1997/98 had been in eastern Indonesia and the rest in Sumatra, west Indonesia. The main destinations in fiscal year 1997/98 were: Irian Jaya, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, and Riau.

Until the fourth year of Repelita VI, 11,374.6 km of new roads, had been built in all transmigration settlements, but they decreased by 3.3% compared with the previous year due to their close proximity to the old location. The total of new bridges until the fourth year of Repelita VI was 37,953.7 m. Construction of new roads and bridges in every new settlement had were16 km and 81.7 m respectively.

In fiscal year 1997/98, 70,283 housing units for transmigrants were constructed, together with 180 health centers, 382 houses of worship, 395 warehouses, and 379 houses for workers.

Meanwhile, 45,471.75 ha. new farm lands were opened, consisting of 25,323.4 ha. of yards and 20,148.35 ha. of production land.

After two years on location the transmigrants are assured of their rights and the Government grants them land certificates. In general, each transmigrant receives three kinds of certificates namely one for the plot of land where his house is located, one for production land I and another for production land II. During four years of Repelita VI, the Government granted 445,798 or about 111,450 certificates per year were issued to the transmigrants.

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Intensive training in various skills is given to the potential transmigrants who have adequate education and are deemed able to become cadres in the national development. In the fourth year of Repelita VI (1997/98), 22.740 transmigrants received training respectively 7,810 persons in the field of agriculture, 6,930 persons in non-agriculture, and 8,000 persons in various skills.

In fiscal year 1997/98, 86,911 resettled families were composed of 49,861 of semi-and fully government-supported transmigrant families and 37,050 self supporting voluntary transmigrant families. The figure was lower than in the previous year due to drought and forest fires which have hampered transmigration.

The majority or 84.4% of the transmigrants came from Java and the rest from Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, and Lampung.

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