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Vietnam Main Page

 

Vietnamese Politics


Country name:
conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form: Vietnam
local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form: Viet Nam
abbreviation: SRV

 

Government type:
Communist state
Capital:
name: Hanoi (Ha Noi)
geographic coordinates: 21 02 N, 105 51 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
58 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thanh pho, singular and plural)
provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dac Lak, Dac Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Tinh, Hai Duong, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai
municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City
Independence:
2 September 1945 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
Constitution:
15 April 1992
Legal system:
based on communist legal theory and French civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Nguyen Minh TRIET (since 27 June 2006); Vice President Nguyen Thi DOAN (since 25 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 27 June 2006); Permanent Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Sinh HUNG (since 28 June 2006), Deputy Prime Minister Hoang Trung HAI (since 2 August 2007), Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Thien NHAN (since 2 August 2007), Deputy Prime Minister Pham Gia KHIEM (since 28 June 2006), and Deputy Prime Minister Truong Vinh TRONG (since 28 June 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president based on proposal of prime minister and confirmed by National Assembly
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by the National Assembly from among its members for five-year term; last election held 27 June 2006 (next to be held in January 2011); prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister; appointment of prime minister and deputy prime ministers confirmed by National Assembly
election results: Nguyen Minh TRIET elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 94%; Nguyen Tan DUNG elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 92%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Quoc Hoi (493 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 20 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPV 450, non-party CPV-approved 42, self-nominated 1; note - 493 candidates were elected; CPV and non-party CPV-approved delegates were members of the Vietnamese Fatherland Front
Judicial branch:
Supreme People's Court (chief justice is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president for a five-year term)
Political parties and leaders:
Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nong Duc MANH]; other parties proscribed
Political pressure groups and leaders:
8406 Bloc; Democratic Party of Vietnam or DPV; People's Democratic Party Vietnam or PDP-VN; Alliance for Democracy
note: these groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by the government
International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, CICA (observer), CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Le Cong PHUNG
chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737
FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael W. MICHALAK
embassy: 7 Lang Ha Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 400, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [84] (4) 3850-5000
FAX: [84] (4) 3850-5010
consulate(s) general: Ho Chi Minh City
Flag description:
red field with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center; red symbolizes revolution and blood, the five-pointed star represents the five elements of the populace - peasants, workers, intellectuals, traders, and soldiers - that unite to build socialism
National anthem:
name: "Tien quan ca" (The Song of the Marching Troops)
lyrics/music: Nguyen Van CAO
note: adopted as the national anthem of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945; it became the national anthem of the unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976; although it consists of two verses, only the first is used as the official anthem

 

 

Vietnam's government had been primarily based on Confucianism and institutions were based on those in China.  This changed after the French invasion with the emperor being such in name only.  When the country divided in 1954, the North became Communist with the South following the example of Western countries.  With reunification in 1976, there were attempts to convert South Vietnam to Communism.  Although Communism has spread throughout the South, it also caused a great exodus of people from Vietnam to other countries.  

Ho Chi Min

In 1980, the constitution, similar to the Soviets' but with some democratic ideals was promulgated.  There were to be secret ballot elections, but overall the Communist party would dictate what would be considered the best for everyone overall.  It was revised slightly in 1992 to show economic reforms that had occurred in 1986 as well as decreasing the party's role in governing.  With this amendment, the president is the head of the state and is elected to a five-year term by the National Assembly.  He has several advisors and assistants, among them the National Defense and Security Council.

Vietnam's political party is the Vietnamese Communist Party, with about 2.2 million members and according to a 1992 constitutional amendment, the Communist Party is "the force leading the State and society," thus giving it exclusive power.  Although the people want civil freedom, it doesn't mean they want to copy the West's way of thinking, which is contrary to Confucian traditions.  The younger generation have  influenced the Party and the government's action, causing them to be more lenient in resolving economic questions, because of their increased education and foreign experiences, with another factor being Vietnamese who are returning home from around the world.    

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